SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization and is a practice adopted by site owners who want to increase the amount of traffic they receive from search engines like Google, Yahoo!, and so on. It works by improving internal and external factors to achieve a higher position on search engines on search results pages (SERPS). SEO is all the rage these days. They have always been and will always be. This is because the search engine is a big player and the reason why so many are succeeding online.
The first reason people take care with optimizing for the search engine is because they want their business to appear in the organic search listings. This makes it free and effective. This is effective only if you are appearing on the first page or at least, the top three pages. You can purchase advertising of course, but these cannot beat the organic listings and are less effective in encouraging visitors to click.
When you optimize your site, you pay attention to the title tag, Meta tags and description tags. You also need to optimize what is on the page and again, you start with the title, body and then description tags.
Give special consideration to the title because it is what appears first. This is true for both humans and the search engine. Describe the title as accurately as possible for both your web-page as well as the content on that page. Do this for every web-page.